It is unlikely that Pericles uttered precisely these words, since it was customary for ancient historians to invent the speeches of the figures they wrote about, based on what they knew about them; but it certainly reflects the attitudes of many Athenians.
The argument ended in ostracism in ; Thucydides went into exile for 10 years, leaving Pericles unchallenged.
They were proud and considered even arrogant. Make them your examples, and, esteeming courage to be freedom and freedom to be happiness, do not weigh too nicely the perils of war. From his youthful demagogy, he had moved to a more middle ground in politics, and there are traces in his later life of his being outflanked by more radical spokesmen.
Our united force was never yet encountered by any enemy, because we have at once to attend to our marine and to dispatch our citizens by land upon a hundred different services; so that, wherever they engage with some such fraction of our strength, a success against a detachment is magnified into a victory over the nation, and a defeat into a reverse suffered at the hands of our entire people.
It seemed to them a worthy thing that such an honor should be given at their burial to the dead who have fallen on the field of battle. Such is the Athens for which these men, in the assertion of their resolve not to lose her, nobly fought and died; and well may every one of their survivors be ready to suffer in her cause.
If peace with Persia did not end the alliance, it may have ended the annual tribute paid to that treasury. And now, when you have duly lamented every one his own dead, you may depart.
At an unknown date, Pericles took a fleet into the Black Sea to demonstrate Athenian power and secure the grain route from the Tauric Chersonese the Crimean Peninsula in modern Ukraine. Pericles maintained close friendships with the leading intellects of his time.
We rely not upon management or trickery, but upon our own hearts and hands. Athens was, Thucydides says, in name a democracy but, in fact, governed by its first man.
But instead of listening to him I would have you day by day fix your eyes upon the greatness of Athens, until you become filled with the love of her; and when you are impressed by the spectacle of her glory, reflect that this empire has been acquired by men who knew their duty and had the courage to do it, who in the hour of conflict had the fear of dishonor always present to them, and who, if ever they failed in an enterprise, would not allow their virtues to be lost to their country, but freely gave their lives to her as the fairest offering which they could present at her feast.
Athenian Democracy You are here: No, holding that vengeance upon their enemies was more to be desired than any personal blessings, and reckoning this to be the most glorious of hazards, they joyfully determined to accept the risk Thucydides says early in his History that the speeches presented are not verbatim records, but are intended to represent the main ideas of what was said and what was, according to Thucydides, "called for in the situation".
In proof of this it may be noticed that the Lacedaemonians do not invade our country alone, but bring with them all their confederates; while we Athenians advance unsupported into the territory of a neighbour, and fighting upon a foreign soil usually vanquish with ease men who are defending their homes.
Finally they were buried at a public grave at Kerameikos. Therefore, he proceeds to point out that the greatest honour and act of valour in Athens is to live and die for freedom of the state Pericles believed was different and more special than any other neighbouring city. For it is not the miserable that would most justly be unsparing of their lives; these have nothing to hope for: The details were never fully known, but, possibly by bribery and certainly by negotiation, it was arranged that Athens would give up its mainland possessions and confine itself to a largely maritime empire.
And not only in our public life are we free and open, but a sense of freedom regulates our day-to-day life with each other.
The campaign culminated in disaster; the besieging force was defeated and destroyed. Its administration favours the many instead of the few; this is why it is called a democracy.
We all join in debate about the affairs of the city, as they deserve, or at least we participate in the decisions.
And if a test of worth be wanted, it is to be found in their closing scene, and this not only in cases in which it set the final seal upon their merit, but also in those in which it gave the first intimation of their having any.This piece is a funeral oratory, a speech written to honor fallen Athenian heroes at the end of the first year of the Peloponnesian War.
At such a time of high emotions and patriotism – Pericles. 11 days ago · Pericles describes that in Athens any man, no matter his station in life, can find a way to strive within society. Pericles explains “Neither is poverty an obstacle, but a man may benefit his country whatever the obscurity of his condition.”.
In the funeral procession cypress coffins are borne in cars, one for each tribe; the bones of the deceased being placed in the coffin of their tribe.
Among these is carried one empty bier decked for the missing, that is, for those whose bodies could not be recovered.
Pericles was a prominent and influential Greek statesman, orator and general of Athens during the Golden Age — specifically the time between the Persian and. Pericles’s funeral oration was given to honor the soldiers lost in war by commemorating the military accomplishments of the Athens government and to distinguish the roles of men and women in Athens.
Pericles: Pericles, Athenian statesman largely responsible for the full development, in the later 5th century bce, of both the Athenian democracy and the Athenian empire, making Athens the political and cultural focus of Greece. His achievements included the construction of the Acropolis, begun inDownload